Alp Eren Çelenlioğlu1, Savaş Şencan2, Rekib Saçaklıdır2, Ekim Can Öztürk2, Osman Hakan Gündüz2

1Department of Pain Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Gülhane Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Türkiye
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Division of Pain Medicine, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Türkiye

Keywords: Cervical radiculopathy, disability evaluation, herniated disc, pain measurement, questionnaire.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Cervical Radiculopathy Impact Scale (CRIS) and to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the CRIS.

Patients and methods: Between October 2021 and February 2022, a total of 105 patients (48 males, 57 females; mean age: 45.4±11.8 years; range, 36.5 to 55.5 years) who were diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy due to disc herniation were included. Disability and quality of life were evaluated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Short Form-12 (SF-12). Pain severity was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) in three subscales (neck pain, pain radiating to the arm, and numbness in the finger, hand, or arm). The internal consistency for CRIS was assessed using the Cronbach alpha and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Explanatory factor analyses were performed for construct validity. To examine the content validity, the correlations among the three subgroup scores of CRIS and the other scale scores were analyzed.

Results: The internal consistency of CRIS was found to be high (α=0.937). A high reliability was obtained for test-retest reliability for the three subscales of CRIS (Symptoms, Energy and postures, Actions and activities) (ICC: 0.950, 0.941, 0.962, respectively; p<0.001). All three subscale scores of CRIS were correlated with the NDI, QuickDASH, SF-12 (physical and mental) and NRS scores (r=0.358-0.713, p<0.001). Factor analysis showed that the scale had five factors.

Conclusion: The CRIS is a valid and reliable instrument for Turkish patients with cervical radiculopathy due to disc herniation.

Citation: Çelenlioğlu AE, Şencan S, Saçaklıdır R, Öztürk EC, Gündüz OH. Cervical Radiculopathy Impact Scale: Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Arch Rheumatol 2022;37(4):574-583.

Ethics Committee Approval

The study protocol was approved by the Marmara University Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee (date: 08.10.2021, no: 1107). The study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Author Contributions

Contributed to the study conception and design: A.E.Ç., S..; Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed: A.E.Ç., R.S., E.C.Ö.; The manuscript was written: A.E.Ç., S.., R.S., E.C.Ö.; The supervisor: O.H.G.; All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.