Kinesiophobia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Relationship with quadriceps muscle strength, fear of falling, functional status, disease activity, and quality of life
İlkay Baysalhan Öztürk1, Yeşim Garip2, Filiz Sivas3, Merve Parlak Özden4, Hatice Bodur5
1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Bilkent City Hospital Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
2Pediatric Brain Injury Rehabilitation Clinic, Ankara Bilkent City Hospital Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Brain Injury Rehabilitation Clinic, Ankara Bilkent City Hospital Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
4Kahramankazan District Health Directorate, Public Health, Ankara, Turkey
5Ankara Bilkent City Hospital Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hospital, Rheumatology, Orthopedic Rehabilitation and Pain, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, quality of life, kinesiophobia
Objectives: This study aims to determine the frequency of kinesiophobia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to evaluate the relation of kinesiophobia with the knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps muscle strength, fear of falling, functional status, disease activity, depression, and quality of life.
Patients and methods: Between September 2018 and September 2019, a total of 100 RA patients (25 males, 75 females; mean age: 56.1±9.3 years; range, 32 to 69 years) and 50 healthy controls (14 males, 36 females; mean age: 54.6±9.8 years; range, 30 to 69 years) were included. Disease activity was evaluated using the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and functional status using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Pain severity was measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale (TKS) was used to evaluate kinesiophobia. Quadriceps muscle strength and knee ROM measurements of two extremities were recorded. Depression was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), fear of falling by Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and quality of life using the Short Form-36 (SF-36).
Results: The rate of kinesiophobia was 70% in RA patients and 12% in controls, indicating a higher rate in RA patients, compared to controls (odds ratio [OR] = 44.861, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.571-49.052; p<0.05). This rate was 76% in females and 52% in males. Regression analysis revealed that the number of swollen and tender joints, DAS28, VAS-pain, and HAQ scores were positively associated with the TKS scores (p<0.05). Quadriceps muscle strength and knee flexion were negatively associated with the TKS scores (p<0.05). The TKS was significantly correlated with FES and BDI (p<0.05). The TKS was negatively correlated with SF-36 subscales (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Kinesiophobia is common in RA patients. Our study is the first to evaluate the frequency of kinesiophobia in RA patients and to show pain level, disease activity, functional status, knee flexion ROM, and quadriceps muscle strength are effective on kinesiophobia. Kinesiophobia is also associated with fear of falling and depression, negatively affecting the quality of life in terms of physical, emotional, social and mental functions. Therefore, evaluating kinesiophobia and developing targeted treatment approaches seem to be useful in increasing the quality of life in RA.