The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Young Adult Workers: A Cross-sectional Controlled Study
Ali Erdem BAKİ1, Timur EKİZ2, Gökhan Tuna ÖZTÜRK2, Engin TUTKUN3, Hınç YILMAZ3, Mustafa Turgut YILDIZGÖREN1
1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Toxicology, Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: Hyperuricemia; lead exposure; renal function; saturnine gout; uric acid.
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and renal functions in asymptomatic subjects who had occupational lead exposure, particularly for shorter durations whereby saturnine gout has also been discussed.
Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, files of 100 males (mean age 34.5±5.9 years; range, 21 to 47 years) with occupational risk for lead exposure and 100 healthy male controls (mean age 34.47±5.8 years; range 21 to 47 years) were reviewed. Demographic characteristics of the subjects and laboratory test results were recorded from the files. Creatinine clearance and 24-hour urinary creatinine were measured in the lead-exposed group.
Results: In the lead-exposed group, mean serum uric acid level was higher than those of the control group (p<0.001). Lead exposure time was negatively correlated with 24-hour urinary creatinine levels (r= -0.373, p<0.001). In addition, serum uric acid levels were positively correlated with serum creatinine levels (r=0.412, p<0.001) in the exposed group. Six patients had hyperuricemia (serum uric acid level >6.8 mg/dL) in the lead- exposed group; however, all subjects’ serum uric acid level was lower than 6.8 mg/dL in the control group (p=0.029). Although 22 subjects had higher uric acid levels than 6.0 mg/dL in the lead-exposed group, only one control had higher uric acid level than 6.0 mg/dL (p<0.001).
Conclusion: In light of our results, we may conclude that workers with lead exposure have higher frequency of hyperuricemia and higher serum uric acid levels than those of the control group. Therefore, we may imply that higher serum uric acid levels may be associated with renal impairment in lead-exposed subjects even in the earlier stages of exposure.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.