Ela Düzce Keleş1, Murat Birtane2, Galip Ekuklu3, Cumhur Kılınçer4, Okan Çalıyurt5, Nurettin Taştekin2, Enes Efe Is6, Ayşegül Ketenci6, Randy Neblett7

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Yatagan State Hospital, Muğla, Turkey
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne, Turkey
3Department of Public Health, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
4Department of Neurosurgery, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
5Department of Psychiatry, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine Edirne, Turkey
6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
7Pride Research Foundation, Dallas, United States

Keywords: Central sensitization inventory, reliability, translation, validity


Objectives: The aim of this study was to translate the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) into the Turkish language, to perform a psychometric validation, and to investigate its reliability in patients with chronic spinal pain with an organic origin, patients with fibromyalgia, and pain-free control individuals.

Patients and methods: Between April 2016 and February 2017, the translation of the original English version of the CSI into Turkish was performed using the forward-backward translation method. A total of 100 fibromyalgia patients (6 males, 94 females; mean age: 45.0±8.4 years; range, 25 to 60 years), 100 patients with chronic spinal pain with an identified organic origin (CSPO), (10 males, 90 females; mean age: 43.8±9.7 years; range, 21 to 60 years), and 100 healthy controls (8 males, 92 females; mean age: 35.8±10.1 years; range, 25 to 55 years) were included in the study. Demographic characteristics were collected. Test-retest reliability was determined by re-administering the CSI-Turkish (CSI-Turk) two weeks after the first application.

Results: The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was found to be 0.92 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. Patients with fibromyalgia, a very common central sensitivity syndrome (CSS), had the highest mean CSI-Turk scores, and healthy controls had the lowest. Using the recommended cut-off score of 40 resulted in 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity in distinguishing between fibromyalgia and control individuals.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the CSI-Turk can be effectively used as a screening tool to elucidate CS-related symptomology among patients with chronic pain with a high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.