Aysun Toraman1, Özgül Soysal Gündüz2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Manisa, Turkey
2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Manisa, Turkey

Keywords: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, end-stage renal disease Five Factor Score, hypocomplementemia, renal survival

Abstract

Objectives: This study aims to assess the different predictors of renal and patient prognosis in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients with and without renal involvement.

Patients and methods: A total of 79 patients (51 males, 28 females; mean age: 57.3±14.2 years; range, 18 to 71 years) with AAV between January 2006 and November 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and laboratory data including the complement 3 (C3) serum levels and renal biopsy findings were extracted from the electronic and printed medical records of the hospital registry. Survival, renal survival, remission, and relapse outcomes were analyzed.

Results: A total of 35% of the patients with renal involvement progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The dialysis requirement at the time of admission (hazard ratio [HR]: 21.95 [2.93-164.22]; p=0.003), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR: 0.97 [0.94-0.99]; p=0.024) and Five-Factor Score (FFS) ≥2 at the time of diagnosis (HR: 3.59 [1.08-11.94]; p=0.037) were the predictors of ESRD. The five-year patient survival rate was 87.1%. The only predictor of mortality was age (HR: 1.07 [1.01-1.14]; p=0.024). The patients with hypocomplementemia (22%) had a lower remission rate (p=0.049), FFS ≥2 at the time of diagnosis (p=0.026), and higher levels of hematuria (p=0.004) and proteinuria (p=0.037). The FFS ≥2 at the time of diagnosis was an independent predictor of relapse (HR: 8.9 [1.02-77.36]; p=0.047).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the baseline renal function and FFS ≥2 at the time of diagnosis are the major prognostic factors for progression to ESRD in AAV patients. In addition, AAV patients with hypocomplementemia may have a lower remission rate.